My personal observation has been that badges lead to the exact opposite of what you fear, both in my projects I have created and projects that I have used.
I see tests as one of the most efficient uses of resources. As a creator of cross-platform projects I have avoided shipping broken code in multiple releases specifically due to Travis and Appveyor -- sometimes indicated by the failure of very simple tests. Having any tests matters to some degree, and making the tests more meaningful (higher quality) increases how much they matter.
The fact that the badges aren't an in-depth analysis of test quality doesn't really speak to whether or not badges useful for what they are.
As @carols10cents mentioned already, if you don't personally find badges useful in deciding which crate to use, then don't use that information. If the quality of the tests is what matters to you, by all means go read the project's tests!
A lot of the rest of us find the badges useful both as project creators and as users. I am in favor of the feature.